Synonyms for carbon dating
For example, between 19, sea level rose by about 6 inches in the tropical Western Pacific while falling by about the same amount in San Francisco. * The average global sea level has been generally rising since 1860 or earlier, which is about 45 years before surface temperatures began to rise and 75 years before man-made emissions of CO2 reached 1% of natural emissions.   * If the trend of the 20th century continues, the average worldwide sea level will rise by about 7 inches (18 cm) during the 21st century.
The 2007 IPCC report uses certain models that project an acceleration of this trend, and the report predicts sea level increases ranging from 7 to 31 inches (18-79 cm) from 1990 to 2100. * Scientists have estimated worldwide sea levels going back to the year 1700 using data from local tide gauges, which are instruments that measure the level of the sea relative to reference points on land. According to some predictions, not long after Bangladesh feels the impact, up to 60 percent of the present population of Florida may have to be relocated.  * In 2008, scientists with the Center for Environment and Geographic Information Services in Bangladesh announced that their study of satellite images and maps shows that Bangladesh gained about 1,000 square kilometers of land since 1973.   * Coral reef islands are typically found in the Pacific Ocean and are primarily composed of gravel, silt and sand that has accumulated on coral reefs.
The report states that: some of the global warming since 1850 could be a recovery from the Little Ice Age rather than a direct result of human activities.
So it is important to recognize that natural variations of climate are appreciable and will modulate any future changes induced by man.
The following map shows these productivity changes, with green signifying higher vegetation productivity and red lower: Plants need water, light, warmth, nutrition and CO2 to grow.
By increasing the CO2 level in the greenhouse atmosphere (typical to 600 ppm instead of normal 400 ppm value), the growth for some plants can be stimulated in an important way, with often yield increases up to 20%, especially for tomato, cucumber, strawberry, etc.
It is the “leading international body for the assessment of climate change,” * The first IPCC report (1990) contains the following graph of average global temperature changes over the past 1,000 years based upon proxies.
It shows a “Medieval warm period” that was warmer than the present era and a “Little Ice Age” that was cooler.
This graph, which is called a “spaghetti graph,” is constructed with data from 12 proxy studies spliced with instrument-measured surface temperatures (the dark black line): * The fifth IPCC report (2013) states that challenges persist in reconstructing temperatures before the time of the instrumental record “due to limitations of spatial sampling, uncertainties in individual proxy records and challenges associated with the statistical methods used to calibrate and integrate multi-proxy information.” This report contains the following spaghetti graphs of proxy studies spliced with instrument-measured surface temperatures (the black lines): * In 2009, an unknown individual(s) released more than 1,000 emails (many dealing with proxy studies) from the University of East Anglia’s Climatic Research Unit (CRU).Data from these instruments is used to calculate the average temperatures of different layers of the Earth’s atmosphere.  * The lowermost layer of the atmosphere, which is called the “lower troposphere,” ranges from ground level to about five miles (8 km) high.  According to satellite data correlated and adjusted by the National Space Science and Technology Center at the University of Alabama Huntsville, the average temperature of the lower troposphere increased by 0.60ºF (0.33ºC) between the 1980s and 2000s, mostly from 1997 to 2010: * Sources of uncertainty in satellite-derived temperatures involve variations in satellite orbits, variations in measuring instruments, and variations in the calculations used to translate raw data into temperatures.  * According to temperature measurements taken near the Earth’s surface that are correlated and adjusted by NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies, the Earth’s average temperature warmed by 1.5ºF (0.8ºC) between the 1880s and 2000s, mostly during 1907–19–2014: * According to temperature measurements taken near the Earth’s surface that are correlated and adjusted by the Climatic Research Unit of the University of East Anglia in the U.K., the Earth’s average temperature warmed by 1.4ºF (0.8ºC) between the 1850s and 2000s, mostly during 1911-19-1998: * Sources of uncertainty in surface temperature data involve “very incomplete” temperature records in the earlier years, “systematic changes in measurement methods,” “calculation and reporting errors,”       data adjustments that are performed when instruments are moved to different locations, instrument precision, instrument positioning, and missing documentation/raw data.  definitive assessment of uncertainties is impossible, because it is always possible that some unknown error has contaminated the data, and no quantitative allowance can be made for such unknowns. * Oceans constitute about 71% of the Earth’s surface. Changes in air temperature over the world’s oceans are typically based on measurements of water temperature at depths varying from less than 3 feet to more than 49 feet.  This data is combined with changes in air temperature over land areas to produce global averages.  contrasted water and air temperature changes in the tropical Pacific Ocean using three sources of measurements.Hopefully it will give some insight into the science and the people behind it.  Look at the instrumental record!There are huge differences between different regions - Alaska has warmed substantially while eastern North America cooled after the 1950s.