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Under the terms of the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659, which ended the wider Franco-Spanish War, the Spanish Crown ceded the northern parts of Catalonia, mostly incorporated in the county of Roussillon, to France.During the War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714), the Crown of Aragon sided against the Bourbon Philip V of Spain, whose subsequent victory led to the Nueva Planta decrees which abolished non-Castilian institutions in the Crown of Aragon, replaced Latin and other languages (such as Catalan) with Spanish in legal documents, abolished internal borders and customs except for the Basque and Navarrese territories and ended the Castilian monopoly over trade with the Spanish Empire.is an autonomous community of Spain located on the northeastern extremity of the Iberian Peninsula.It is one of Spain's eight communities which are designated as a nationality by their Statute of Autonomy.In the nineteenth century, Catalonia was severely affected by the Napoleonic and Carlist Wars.In the second half of the century, Catalonia experienced significant industrialisation.The eastern counties of these marches were united under the rule of the Frankish vassal, the count of Barcelona, and were later called Catalonia.In 1137, Catalonia and the Kingdom of Aragon were united by marriage under the Crown of Aragon, and the Principality of Catalonia became the base for the Crown of Aragon's naval power and expansionism in the Mediterranean.
Coastal trading colonies were established by the ancient Greeks, who settled around the Gulf of Roses, in Emporion (Empúries) and Roses in the 8th century BC.
In the later Middle Ages, Catalan literature flourished.
Between 14, the king of Aragon and the queen of Castile married and ruled their kingdoms together, retaining all their distinct institutions, courts (parliament), and constitutions.
The Neolithic era began in Catalonia around 5000 BC, although the population was slower to develop fixed settlements than in other places, thanks to the abundance of woods, which allowed the continuation of a fundamentally hunter-gatherer culture.
The Chalcolithic (Eneolithic) period developed in Catalonia between 25 BC, with the beginning of the construction of copper objects. There are few remnants of this era, but there were some known settlements in the low Segre zone.